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Health Spiritual Med Ethics 2021, 8(1): 35-43 Back to browse issues page
Role of Spirituality and Five Personality Traits in the Prediction of Perceived Stress in Mothers of Mentally-Retarded Children
Sohrab Abdi Zarrin , Maryam Asadi , Zahra Jafari , Zahra Tavallaei Nezhad
Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, University of Qom, Qom, Iran.
Abstract:   (183 Views)
Background and Objectives: The parents in families with a mentally retarded child tolerate psychological consequences in addition to financial and social issues. The mothers of these children are usually exposed to various harms and severe environmental stresses that can be exacerbated or facilitated by different factors. Therefore, this study aimed to predict the perceived stress of mothers with mentally retarded children based on spirituality and five personality traits.
Methods: This correlational study included all mothers with mentally retarded children in Qom, Iran, in the academic year 2018-19. The study participants (n=150) were selected using the random sampling method, and the data collection was conducted using Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, Parsian and Dunning Spirituality Questionnaire, and NEO Personality Inventory. The obtained data were then analyzed in SPSS software (version 23) through Pearson correlation coefficient and Multivariate Linear Regression.
Results: The results of the c  test revealed a significant positive correlation between perceived stress and the self-awareness component of spirituality (P=0.03; R=0.18). Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between the perceived stress and five factors of personality, including neuroticism (P=0.001; R=0.29), extraversion (P=0.03; R=0.18;), openness to experience (P=0.02; R=0.19), agreeableness (P=0.03; R=0.17), and conscientiousness (P=0.02; R=0.19). The results of regression test indicated that self-awareness (R2=0.058) as a component of spirituality and neuroticism (R2=0.097), as a personality trait, were two predictors of perceived stress of mothers with mentally retarded children.
Conclusion: Based on the results, spiritualism, especially the self-awareness factor, and five personality traits, especially neuroticism, were the good predictors of the perceived stress of mothers with mentally retarded children. Therefore, identification of personality traits that cause stress in mothers with mentally retarded children, and provision of socio-psychological supports to them, especially in form of spiritual programs, can improve the mental health of these mothers.

Keywords: Five Personality Traits, Mothers of Mentally-retarded Children, Perceived Stress, Spirituality.
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Type of Study: Original Article | Subject: Special
Received: 2020/06/1 | Accepted: 2020/11/1 | Published: 2021/03/30
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66. Get persistent links for your reference list or bibliography.
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71. Eka NGA, Chambers D. Incivility in nursing education: a systematic literature review. Nurse Educ Pract 2019;39:45-54. DOI: 10.1016/j.nepr.2019.06.00 [DOI:10.1016/j.nepr.2019.06.004]
73. Peters AB. The concept of incivility: a case study. Teach Learn Nurs 2015;10(4):156-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.teln.2015.06.002 [DOI:10.1016/j.teln.2015.06.002]
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83. Joibari L, Mohammadi Z, Sanagoo A. A glance at students and faculty members perceptions of incivil behavior in educational settings. Strid Dev Med Educ 2011;7(2):127-33. Link
84. Ibrahim SA, Qalawa SA. Factors affecting nursing students' incivility: as perceived by students and faculty staff. Nurse Educ Today 2016;36:118-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.nedt.2015.08.014 [DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2015.08.014]
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94. Abedinipoor A, Samadi F, Momeniyan S. Prevalence and factors associated with cheating among students of Qom University of Medical Sciences. J Med Educ Dev 2015;8(19):73-80. Link
95. Clark CM, Barbosa-Leiker C, Gill LM, Nguyen D. Revision and psychometric testing of the incivility in nursing education (INE) survey: introducing the INE-R. J Nurs Educ 2015;54(6):306-15. DOI: 10.3928/01484834-20150515-01 [DOI:10.3928/01484834-20150515-01]
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99. Arab N, Sheykhshabani E, Beshlideh K. Antecedents of workplace incivility: investigating some personal and organizational variables. J Psychol 2013;17(3):294-309. Link
100. Touzet S, Cornut PL, Fassier JB, Le Pogam MA, Burillon C, Duclos A. Impact of a program to prevent incivility towards and assault of healthcare staff in an ophtalmological emergency unit: study protocol for the PREVURGO On/Off trial. BMC Health Serv Res 2014;14(1):221-8. DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-14-221 [DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-14-221]
102. Russell MJ. Teaching civility to undergraduate nursing students using a virtue ethics-based curriculum. J Nurs Educ 2014;53(6):313-9. DOI: 10.3928/01484834-20140512-03 [DOI:10.3928/01484834-20140512-03]
104. Clark CM. Pursuing a culture of civility: an intervention study in one program of nursing. J Nurse Educ 2011;36(3):98-102. DOI: 10.1097/NNE.0b013e3182161238 [DOI:10.1097/NNE.0b013e3182161238]
106. Sun RC, Shek DT. Classroom misbehavior in the eyes of students: a qualitative study. Sci World J 2012;2012:398482. DOI: 10.1100/2012/398482 [DOI:10.1100/2012/398482]
108. Rad M, Moonaghi HK. Strategies for managing nursing students' incivility as experienced by nursing educators: a qualitative study. J Caring Sci 2016;5(1):23-32. DOI: 10.15171/jcs.2016.003 [DOI:10.15171/jcs.2016.003]
110. Abedini Z, Parvizi S. Student's perceptions of using scenario-based education to improve civility: a mixed method study. J Adv Med Educ Prof 2019;7(4):165-74. DOI: 10.30476/jamp.2019.74933
111. Abedini Z, Parvizy S. The effects of group discussion and self-learning on nursing students' civility. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2019;24(4):268-73. DOI: 10.4103/ijnmr.
112. IJNMR_212_18
113. Kerber C, Jenkins S, Woith W, Kim M. Journal clubs: a strategy to teach civility to nursing students. J Nurs Educ 2012;51(5):277-82. DOI: 10.3928/01484834-20120323-02 [DOI:10.3928/01484834-20120323-02]
115. Tsuruwaka M, Asahara K. Narrative writing as a strategy for nursing ethics education in Japan. Int J Med Educ 2018;9:198-205. DOI: 10.5116/ijme.5b39.d5d2 [DOI:10.5116/ijme.5b39.d5d2]
117. Lee HL, Huang SH, Huang CM. Evaluating the effect of three teaching strategies on student nurses' moral sensitivity. Nurs Ethics 2017;24(6):732-43. DOI: 10.1177/0969733015623095 [DOI:10.1177/0969733015623095]
119. Vermeesch A, Cox PH, Baca S, Simmons D. Strategies for strengthening ethics education in a DNP program.Nurs Educ Perspect 2018;39(5):309-11. DOI: 10.1097/01.NEP.00000000 [DOI:10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000383]
121. 00000383
122. Clark CM, Springer PJ. Academic nurse leaders' role in fostering a culture of civility in nursing education. J Nurs Educ 2010;49(6):319-25. DOI: 10.3928/01484834-20100224-01 [DOI:10.3928/01484834-20100224-01]
124. Knepp KA. Understanding student and faculty incivility in higher education. J Effective Teach 2012;12(1):33-46. Link
125. Williams SC, Lauerer J. Implementing a nursing civility code: implications for education. J Nurs Educ 2013;52(3):165-70. DOI: 10.3928/01484834-20130218-01 [DOI:10.3928/01484834-20130218-01]
127. Palumbo R. Incivility in nursing education: an intervention. Nurse Educ Today 2018;66:143-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.nedt. [DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2018.03.024]
129. 024
130. Kim JS. Relationship between incivility experiences and nursing professional values among nursing students: Moderating effects of coping strategies. Nurse Educ Today 2018;65:187-91. DOI: 10.1016/j.nedt.2018.03.007 [DOI:10.1016/j.nedt.2018.03.007]
132. Jenkins SH, Woith WM, Stenger DA, Kerber CS. Using an innovative journal club strategy to teach civility to nursing students: Lessons learned. J Nurs Educ Pract 2014;4(3):161-6. Link [DOI:10.5430/jnep.v4n3p161]
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Abdi Zarrin S, Asadi M, Jafari Z, Tavallaei Nezhad Z. Role of Spirituality and Five Personality Traits in the Prediction of Perceived Stress in Mothers of Mentally-Retarded Children. Health Spiritual Med Ethics. 2021; 8 (1) :35-43
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